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Saturday, May 16, 2009



Concordance (Agreement) adalah persesuaian antara subjek dengan predikatnya.


  • Alex works hard every day. (work harus ditambah “s” karena subjeknya orang ketiga tunggal - Alex).
  • This ruler is long. (is menunjukkan subjek tunggal).
  • The boy was very exhausted.
  • She has written a letter today.

Beberapa Kaidah Dalam Agreements

A. Agreement Antara Subjek dan Kata Kerjanya

Apabila subjek-nya plural (jamak), maka kata kerjanya harus juga plural.
  • They are very happy today.
  • The boys often come late on Mondays.
  • We have studied hard to pass the exam.

Apabila subjeknya singular (tunggal), maka kata kerjanya harus juga singular.
  • He learns French every day.
  • A car has been stolen.
  • He is very happy.

Apabila dua subjek atau lebih dihubungkan dengan "and", maka kata kerjanya harus plural.
  • The president and the prime minister are having a meeting now.
  • Jack and Henry usually go to school by bus.
  • My brother and I take a final exam.
  • My parents were at your house yesterday.

Apabila dua kata benda yang berfungsi sebagai subjek dihubungkan dengan "and", dan menunjukkan singular person atau membentuk sebuah kesatuan makna, maka subjek tersebut berarti singular; oleh karena itu kata kerjanya harus juga singular.
  • Thruth and honesty is the best policy.
  • The poet and statesman is coming here.


Apabila sebelum "statesmen" ada "the", maka berarti plural, oleh karena itu kata kerjanya harus plural yaitu "are". Jadi,

  • The poet and the statesman are coming here.
  • Bread and butter is served for our breakfast.
  • The stars and stripes flies overhead.

Apabila subjek adalah Collective Noun, singular dalam bentuknya, tetapi yang dimaksudkan plural, maka verb-nya harus juga plural, dan sebaliknya jika yang dimaksudkan singular maka verb-nya harus juga singular.

Beberapa contoh Collective Noun:

  • congress, family, group, class, organization, team, army, committee, government, jury, club, public, dll


  • The committee were unable to agree. (Maksud dari kalimat ini berarti untuk masing-masing anggota, maka kata kerjanya harus jamak).
  • The soccer team wins the tournament. (Subjek kalimat ini menjadi satu kesatuan makna, bukan perseorangan, maka kata kerjanya harus tunggal).
  • The family have to give their vote. (jamak)
  • The jury agrees on a verdict. (tunggal)

Apabila dua atau lebih subjek kalimat yang tunggal digabungkan dengan:
  • either ... or
  • neither ... nor
  • not only ... but also

Maka verb-nya menyesuaikan dengan subjek yang disebut di akhir, bukan di awal.


  • Neither John nor his friends are going to the beach.
  • Either John or his friends are very busy today.
  • Not only Robert but also my parents are in the office.
  • Neither my brothers nor Bob is going to class today.
  • Either my parents or his friend is busy today.
  • Not only my friends but also my cousin is in the office.

Apabila kita menjumpai frasa atau kalimat yang diapit oleh "koma, maka anggap saja frasa atau kalimat itu tidak ada dan tidak mempengaruhi kata kerja sesudahnya.
  • of - together with - from - accompanied by - with - in addition to - between - along with - among - as well as - including


  • Bambang, as well as his two cousin, calls me every day. (as well as his two cousin dianggap tidak ada). Jadi sepertinya kalimat aslinya adalah : Bambang calls me every day.
  • My two aunts, along with their cat, visit me on Sunday. (=My two aunts visit me on Sunday)
  • New York, together with 47 other states, votes for president. (= New York votes for president)
  • Mr. Hunt, accompanied by his wife and children, is arriving tonight. (=Mr Huntn is arriving tonight)

Apabila Indefinite Pronouns berikut ini menjadi subjek, maka verb-nya selalu singular.
  • each - somebody - anything - everybody - someone - everything - everyone - no one - another - anyone - nothing - either - anybody - much - neither - dll.


  • Each (of the men) was irrited with his work.
  • Everybody here knows the importance of English.
  • Nobody works harder than John does.
  • Either is likely to be fired.
  • Either of the available seats is very close to the stage.

Apabila Pronouns berikut ini menjadi subjek, maka verb-nya harus selalu dalam bentuk plural.
  • both - few - many - others - several


  • Several were present at the meeting but few spoke.
  • Many people write a good novel.
  • Others have tried this lock but no one has succeeded.
  • Many are calleA but few are chosen.
  • Both were anxious to receive the award.

Apabila Collective Noun yang menunjukkan waktu, uang, ukuran, dan lain-lain dianggap sebagai satu kesatuan, maka predikatnya (verb) selalu singular, tetapi bila dipandang sebagai unit-unit yang terpisah, maka predikatnya (verb) harus plural.


  • Seven years is along time for famine. (singular)
  • Two mile is too much to run in one day. (singular)
  • Three days is not enough to complete the project. (singular)
  • These last three weeks have been full of surprise. (plural)
  • There are fifty one bills in this envelope. (plural)
  • Ninety people are registered for this course. (plural)

Apabila Indefinite Pronouns berikut ini menjadi subjek, maka verb-nya dapat dalam bentuk singular atau plural, tergantung dari kata benda yang terletak sesudah "of".
  • all - none - enough - most - a lot - any - some - more - part
most of the

Countable Nouns

Plural Verbs
some of the
part of the
all of the


  • Half of the pies are left.
  • Part of the books are interesting.
  • Are all of the bales of cotton ready to be shipped?
  • All of the women have brought gifts.
most of the

Uncountable Nouns

Singular Verbs
some of the
part of the
all of the


  • All of the gasoline has been sold.
  • Half of the pie is left.
  • Part of the book was interesting.
  • Most of the money was saved.


None dan No : Dapat diikuti oleh singular atau plural, tergantung pada noun yang mengikutinya.

  • None of the conterfeit money has been found.
  • None of the students have finished the exam yet.
  • No example is difficult for you.
  • No teachers go on strike.

"a number of + Plural Nouns + Singular Verbs" dan "the number of + Plural Nouns + Plural Verbs"


  • The number of people in the room is ninety-two.
  • A number of people have enrolled this course.
  • A large number of applicants are already here.
  • The number of days in a week is seven.

Apabila kata-kata berikut ini menjadi subjek, maka verb-nya selalu tunggal.
  • clothing - economics - equipment - scenery - mumps - news - Philippines - furniture - behaviour - knowledge - traffic - ethics - civics - athletics - dll


  • The news is important.
  • Economics was widely used.
  • Knowledge is power.
  • Statistics was my favorite subject in college.

Apabila kata-kata (noun) berikut ini menjadi subjek, maka verb-nya selalu dalam bentuk plural.
  • belongings - proceeds - tactics - clothes - remains - thanks - goods - riches - wages
  • pants - scissors - trousers - pliers - suds - tongs - shorts - jeans - glasses


  • These scissors cut through heavy cardboard.
  • Tim's clothes are on the bed; his pants, however, are in the closet.
  • My new pliers grip firmly.
  • The tactics she employed were highly effective.

Gunakan "a pair of" (sepasang), untuk mengubah kata-kata di atas menjadi Singular.


  • A pair of pants is in the drawer.
  • The pair of pliers was on the table.
  • This pair of scissors is dull.

Beberapa Noun berikut ini digunakan untuk menunjukkan group/kelompok hewan tertentu yang mempunyai kesamaan dalam jenisnya, sehingga dianggap singular, maka verb-nya harus singular.
  • flock of birds, sheep school of fish, herd of cattle, pack of dogs, pride of lions, troop of lions, dll.


  • The herd of cattle is breaking away.
  • The school of fish is being attached by sharks.
  • The flock of birds is circling overhead.

Apabila "every", "many a" dan "each" digunakan sebelum subjek, maka verb-nya selalu singular.


  • Every boy and girl on the team is a top student.
  • Many a worker looks forward to the weekend.
  • Each window and door was locked securely.

Apabila sebuah kalimat dimulai dengan gerund (verb + ing), maka verb-nya selalu singular.


  • Not studying has caused him many problem.
  • Writting many letters makes he happy.
  • Dancing is very pupular today.

"Here" dan "There" bukan tergolong subjek. subjek kalimat yang diawali dengan "here" dan "there" terletak sesudah verb-nya, maka verb-nya harus menyesuaikan dengan subjek yang ada.


  • Here is your book.
  • Here are your books.
  • There has been an increase in the import of foreign cars.
  • There are soldiers in the battle field.

Kata benda berikut ini berasal dari bahasa Latin dan dalam bentuk plural, maka verb-nya selalu plural.
  • alumni - larvae - radii - criteria - alumnae - minutiae - stimuli - data - agenda - phenomena - synopses - vertebrae


  • Your criteria are valid for judging these data.
  • The alumni of Oxford University come to the meeting.

Bila suatu bilangan pecahan atau persentase digunakan sebagai subjek, maka verbnya dapat berbentuk singular atau plural, tergantung pada kata benda yang terletak sesudah "of".


  • Two-fifths of our profits go to reinvestment.
  • Three-fourths of the house is now ready.
  • Fifty percent of his crop is soy beans.
  • Twenty-five percent of the students work after school.

Bila subjek kalimat berupa judul buku, artikel, film, drama dan lain-lain, dan nama perusahaan, negara Berta organisasi, maka predikat (verb-nya) selalu singular meskipun kelihatannya subjek itu plural.


  • The immigrants is a fine Bergman film.
  • The Netherlands is located in Western Europe.
  • Passages, by Gail Sheeky, won the best seller list for months.
  • General Motors Company has declared a deviden.
  • The Girl Scouts has its headquaters near my office.

Bila subjek berupa Frasa Kata Depan, maka predikatnya menyesuaikan dengan kata yang terletak sebelum "of".


  • The study of languages is very interesting.
  • Several theories on this subject have been proposed.
  • The view of these disciplines varies from time to time.
  • The danger of forest fires is not to be taken lightly.
  • The effects of that crimes are likely to be devastating.
  • The cost of new houses is rising every day.

Bila subjek kalimatnya berupa kata sifat yang ditambah dengan "the", maka predikat (verb)-nya selalu dalam bentuk plural.


  • The unemployed are losing hope.
  • The poor are trying to find the aid.
  • The rich have collected money for the blind.

B. Agreement Antara Pronoun dan Antecedent

Antecedent adalah kata yang diacu (tempat kembali) atau ditunjuk oleh pronoun (kata ganti).

a. Agreement in Number

Jika antecedent-nya singular, maka pronoun-nya harus juga singular, dan sebaliknya, jika antecedent plural maka pronounnya harus plural.

  • The men bred their white cat.
  • Each roan gets to heaven in his way.
  • The jury were divided. They were unable to bring a verdict.

b. Agreement in Gender

Pronoun – personal pronoun harus sesuai dalam gender (masculine, feminine, neuter, common) dengan antecedent-nya.

  • The man has done his duty.
  • The woman has finished her homework.
  • The child has finished its duty.
  • The cat ate its meal.

c. Agreement in Person

Pronoun harus sesuai dalam person -(orang pertama, orang kedua, atau orang ketiga) dengan antecedent-nya.

  • We are not teachers, but we must teach our children discipline.
  • Some students study hard because they want to pass the final exam.
  • When one pays attention, he (or one) learns better.
  • The leader expects every man to do his duty.


  • Apabila dua antecedent atau lebih, dihubungkan dengan and, maka harus ditunjukkan dengan plural noun.
    • John and Mary did their work.
    • The beautiful and the damned have their place in fiction.
    • Udin and Amir have just mowed their lawn.
    • The boys and girls asked us to repeat what we'd said to them.
  • Apabila indefinite pronoun digunakan sebagai antecedent, maka pronoun-nya harus sesuai dalam number.
    • Indefinite pronoun berikut ini adalah singular, maka jika digunakan sebagai antecedent, mereka memerlukan singular pronoun.

    another - either - much - one - anybody - everybody - neither - somebody - anyone - everyone - nobody - someone - anything - everything - no one - something - each - it - nothing

    • Each of the boys did his home work.
    • The school will accept anyone if he/she seems worthy
    • Neither of our products is selling at its best.
    • Each of us knows his/her social security number.
    • Someone left his coat in his locker.
    • One likes to do what he or she can do well
    • Indefinite pronoun berikut ini adalah plural, maka jika digunakan sebagai antecedent, mereka memerlukan plural pronoun.

    both - few - many - others - several

    • Many people enjoy their vacation in Bali.
    • Both of the applicants are worthy, at least on their resumes.
    • Few can remember when they were two years old.
    • Several found their cars unlocked.
    • Others found their friend in the Balcon
    • Indefinite pronoun berikut ini bila digunakan sebagai antecedent, mungkin dapat berarti singular atau plural tergantung pads arti yang dimaksudkan, maka pronoun-nya hares sesuai dengan arti yang dimaksudkan.

    all - any - more - most - none - some

    • Are any of them here today? (plural)
    • All in the crowd cheered their approval. (plural)
    • All the money is in its proper place. (singular)
    • Some of the candy has lost its flavor. (singular)
  • Apabila collective noun menjadi antecedent, maka ditunjukkan dengan singular pronoun, jika yang dimaksudkan singular, dan ditunjukkan dengan plural noun, jika yang dimaksudkan plural.

audience - couple - family - public - class - crowd - government - jury - committee - group - team - army - dll.

  • The Jury gave its verdict. (singular)
  • The Jury gave their verdict. (plural, berarti masing-masing anggota dari tim jury tersebut).
  • An army marches against its enemy. (singular)
  • The committee meets for its final session next week. (singular)
  • The committee are arguing among themselves. (plural)


Dalam American English lebih Bering menggunakan singular verb untuk collective noun tersebut di atas, sedangkan dalam British English sebaliknya.
(AE) The government is planning many changes. (BE) The government are planning many changes.

  • Apabila salah satu antecedent dihubungkan dengan:

either ... or - neither ... nor - or - nor


  • Bila antecedent yang terdekat dengan verb adalah singular, maka pronoun-nya juga singular.
    • Neither Ali nor Fatimah has just mowed her lawn.
    • Either my brother or John has taken his exam.
  • Bila antecedent yang terdekat dengan verb adalah plural, maka pronoun-nya juga plural.
    • Neither Ali nor Fatimah's children have just mowed their lawn.
    • Either Udin or his sisters will get their wish.
    • Neither John nor my brothers have taken their exam.
  • Apabila kita ingin menentukan antecedent yang sesungguhnya dalam sebuah kalimat yang ada kata-kata (phrase, appositive atau clause), maka kita tidak usah memperhatikan kata-kata tersebut. Anggaplah phrase atau appositive tersebut tidak ada.
    • Mary, along with the two others, studied her piano lesson.
    • Amir, and not his nephews, is on his way here now.
    • Each of our nearest neighbors has a van in his driveway.
    • Jalal, our regional director of Wijaya kontraktor, has his office in Yogyakarta.
  • subjek dari relative clause: who, which atau that, dapat berbentuk plural atau singular tergantung pads antecedent-nya.
    • The people elect their representatives who speak for them in Congress.
    • Umar is one of my friends who are helping me paint my house.
    • Umar is the only one of my friends who is helping me paint my house.
    • Siti Nurbaya is one of the most interesting books that have ever been written.

C. Adjective — Pronoun Agreements

Demonstrative adjectives yang singular (this, that) dan yang plural (these, those) harus sesuai dalam number (jumlah) dengan noun (kata bends) yang mereka jelaskan (batasi).

  • This dan That adalah singular, maka hanya digunakan bersama dengan singular noun.
  • These dan Those adalah plural, maka hanya digunakan bersama dengan plural noun.


  • This type of potato is native to Sumbawa.
  • These type of potatoes are native to Sumbawa.
  • Budi never buys this brand of canned goods.

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